Our Stolen Futurea book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers
 
 

 

 
References on the basic mechanisms of endocrine disruption

 
  Adriani, W, D Della Seta, F Dessi-Fulgheri, F Farabollini and G Laviola. 2003. Altered profiles of spontaneous novelty seeking, impulsive behavior, and response to D-amphetamine in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A. Environmental Health Perspectives 111:395-401.  
Ahima, RS, J Dushay, SN Flier, D Prabakaran, and JS Flier. 1997. Leptin Accelerates the Onset of Puberty in Normal Female Mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 99: 391-395.

Al-Hiyasat AS, H Darmani , and AM Elbetieha. 2004. Leached components from dental composites and their effects on fertility of female mice. European Journal of Oral Sciences 112:267-272.

Aloisi AM, D Della Seta, C Rendo, I Ceccarelli, A Scaramuzzino and F Farabollini. 2002. Exposure to the estrogenic pollutant bisphenol A affects pain behavior induced by subcutaneous formalin injection in male and female rats. Brain Research 937:1-7.

 

Alonso-Magdalena, P, S Morimoto, C Ripoll, E Fuentes and A Nadal. 2005. The Estrogenic Effect of Bisphenol-A Disrupts the Pancreatic ß-Cell Function in vivo and Induces Insulin Resistance. Environmental Health Perspectives, in press.

 

Arakawa C, K Fujimaki, J Yoshinaga , H Imai, S Serizawa, H Shiraishi. 2004 Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A. Environmental Health and Preventative Medicine 9:22-26

 

  Arnold, SF, DM Klotz, BM Collins, PM Vonier, LJ Guillette, Jr., and JA McLachlan. 1996. Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals. Science 272:1489-1492.

 
  Arnold, SF and JA McLachlan. 1996. Synergistic signals in the environment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 104(10): 1020-1023.

 
  Arnold, SF, MK Robinson, AC Notides, LJ Guillette, Jr and JA McLachlan. 1996. A Yeast Estrogen Screen for Examining the Relative Exposure of Cells to Natural and Xenoestrogens Environmental Health Perspectives 104:544-548.

 
  Ashby, J, PA Lefevre, J Odum, CA Harris, EJ Routledge and JP Sumpter. 1997. Synergy between synthetic oestrogens? Nature: 385:494.

 

Ashby, J, H Tinwell, J Haseman. 1999. Lack of effects for low dose levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the prostate gland of CF1 mice exposed in utero. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 30:156-166.

 

  Aspelin, A. 1994. Pesticide Industry Sales and Usage 1992 and 1993 Market Estimates Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA/733/K-94/001, 1994.

 

Baccarelli, A, P Mocarelli, DG Patterson Jr., M Bonzini, AC Pesatori, N Caporaso and MT Landi. 2002. Immunologic Effects of Dioxin: New Results from Seveso and Comparison with Other Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:1169-1173.

 

Bergeron, JM, E Willingham, CT Osborn, III, T Rhen and David Crews. 1999. Developmental synergism of steroidal estrogens in sex determination. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:93-97.
  Bern, HA, and HL Herbst, AL. 1981. Developmental effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in pregnancy. New York: Thiemeatton.

 

Birnbaum LS, and J Tuomisto. 2000. Non-carcinogenic effects of TCDD in animals. Food Additives and Contaminants 17:275–288.

Birnbaum, LS and DF Staskal. 2004. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environmental Health Perspectives 112: 9-17.

Blais, JM, DW Schindler, DCG Muir, LE Kimpes, DB Donald and B Rosenberg. 1998. Accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in mountains of western Canada. Nature 395:585-588.
 

Blanck, HM, M Marcus, PE Tolbert, C Rubin, AK Henderson, VS Hertzberg, RH Zhang, and L Cameron. 2000. Age at Menarche and Tanner Stage in Girls Exposed In Utero and Postnatally to Polybrominated Biphenyl. Epidemiology 11: 641-647.

 
Blount, BC, MJ Silva, SP Caudill, LL Needham, JL Pirkle, EJ Sampson, GW Lucier, RJ Jackson, JW Brock. 2000. Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population. Environmental Health Perspectives 108:979-982.
 
Boyd, CA, MH Weiler and WP Porter. 1990. Behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with chronic exposure to low-level concentration of pesticide mixtures. J. Toxicological and Environmental Health. 20:209-221.
  Bradbury, R and D White. 1954. Estrogens and Related Substances in Plants. Vitamins and Hormones 12:207-233, 1954.

 
  Brotons, M Olea-Serrano, M Villalobos, V Pedraza, N Olea. 1995. Xenoestrogens Released from Lacquer Coatings in Food Cans. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(6):608-612.

 
  Brucker-Davis, F. 1998. Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function. Thyroid 8:827-855.

 
  Burlington, H and V Lindeman. 1950. Effect of DDT on Testes and Secondary Sex Characters of White Leghorn Cockerels. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 74:48-51.

 
Burbee, DG, E Forgacs, S Zochbauer-Muller, L Shivakumar, K Fong, B Gao, D Randle, M Kondo, A virmani, S Bader, Y Sekido, F Latif, S Milchgrub, S Toyooka, AF Gazdar, MI Lerman, E Zabarovsky, M White and JD Minna 2001. Epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A in lung and breast cancers and malignant phenotype suppression. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93(May 2):694-5
Cagen, SZ, JR Waechter, SS Dimond, WJ Breslin, JH Butala, FW Jekat, RL Joiner, RN Shiotsuka, GE Veenstra and LR Harris. 1999. Normal reproductive organ development in CF-1 mice following prenatal exposure to Bisphenol A. Toxicological Sciences 50: 36-44.

Calabrese EJ, Baldwin LA. 2001. The frequency of U-shaped dose responses in the toxicological literature. Toxicological Sciences 62(2):330-338.

 

Calabrese EJ, and LA Baldwin. 2002. Applications of hormesis in toxicology, risk assessment and chemotherapeutics. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 23(7):331-337.

 

Calabrese EJ and LA Baldwin. 2002. Defining hormesis. Hum Exp Toxicol 21(2):91-97.

 

Calabrese EJ and LA Baldwin. 2003. Hormesis: the dose-response revolution. Annual Review of Pharmacological Toxicology 43:175-197.

Calabrese EJ, and LA Baldwin. 2003. Toxicology rethinks its central belief. Nature 421: 691-692.

 

Calafat, AM, Z Kuklenyik, JA Reidy, SP Caudill, J Ekong and LL Needham. 2005. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and 4-Nonylphenol in a Human Reference Population. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:391-395.

 

Carson, Rachel. 1962. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin.

 

Cavieres, MF, J Jaeger and W Porter. 2002. Developmental Toxicity of a Commercial Herbicide Mixture in Mice: I. Effects on Embryo Implantation and Litter Size. Environmental Health Perspectives 110: 1081-1085.

 

Chhabra, RS, S Eustis, JK Haseman, PJ Kurtz PJ, and BD Carlton. 1992. Comparative carcinogenicity of ethylene thiourea with or without perinatal exposure in rats and mice. Fundam Appl Toxicol 18: 405-417.

 

Champagne F and MJ Meaney. 2001. Like mother, like daughter: evidence for non-genomic transmission of parental behavior and stress responsivity. Prog Brain Res 133:287–302.

 

  Chapin, RE, JT Stevens, CL Hughes, WR Kelce, RA Hess and GP Daston. 1996. Endocrine modulation of reproduction. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 29:1-17.

 
Chehab, FF, K Mounzih, R Lu, and ME Lim. 1997. Early Onset of Reproductive Function in Normal Female Mice Treated with Leptin. Science 275: 88-90.
Christian, M and G Gillies. 1999. Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. Journal of Endocrinology 160:R1-R6.

Chitra KC, C Latchoumycandane, and PP Mathur. 2003. Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol A in the epididymal sperm of rats. Toxicology 185:119-127.

 

  Clark, M, P Karpiuk, B Galef. 1994 Hormonally Mediated Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics in Mongolian Gerbils. Nature 364:712.

 
  Cooke, PS, Hess, RA, Kirby, JD, Bunick, D and Hardy, MP. 1994. Neonatal propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment as a model system for studying factors controlling testis growth and sperm production. pp 400-407 in Function of the Somatic Cells in the Testis. A Bartke (ed.) Springer Verlag, New York.

 

Cowherd, RM, RE Lyle and RE McGehee, Jr. 1999. Molecular regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 10:3-10.

 

Cummings, AM, JL Metcalf and L Birbaum. 1996. Promotion of endometriosis by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-diozin in rats and mice: time-dose dependence and species comparison. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 138:131-139.

Danzo, BJ. 1998. The effects of environmental hormones on reproduction. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54: 1249-1264.

de Boer, J, PG Wester, HJC Klamer, WP Lewis and JP Boon. 1998. Do flame retardants threaten ocean life? Nature 394:28-29.
  Dewailly, E, P Ayotte, S Bruneau, C LaLiberte, D Muir, and R Norstrom. 1993. Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Through the Aquatic Food Chain in the Arctic. in Dioxin '93, 13th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compound: Vienna 14:173-175, 1993.

 
Dienhart, MK, RJ Sommer, RE Peterson, AN Hirshfield and EK Silbergeld. 2000. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces developmental defects in the rat vagina. Toxicological Sciences 56:141-149

Dodds, EC and W Lawson 1936. Synthetic estrogenic agents without the phenanthrene nucleus. Nature 137:996.

 

Dodds, EC and W Lawson 1938. Molecular structure in relation to oestrogenic activity. Compounds without a phenanthrene nucleus. Proceedings of the Royal Society. London B. 125:222-232.

 

  Dogheim, S, E Nasr, M Almaz, and M El-Tohamy. 1990. Pesticide Residues in Milk and Fish Samples Collected in Two Egyptian Governorato. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry 73:19-21

 

Elsby, R, JL Maggs, J Ashby and BK Park. 2001. Comparison of the modulatory effects of human and rat liver microsomal metabolism on the estrogenicity of bisphenol A: implications for extrapolation to humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 297-103-113.

 

Elswick, BA, F Welsch and DB Janszen. 2000. Effect of different sampling designs on outcome of endocrine disruptor studies. Reproductive Toxicology. 14:359-367, 2000.

Esteller, M, JM Silva, G Domingues, F Bonilla, X Matias-Guiu, E Lerma, E Bussaglia, J Prat, IC Harkes, EA Repasky, E Gabrielson, M Schutte, SB Baylin and and JG Herman. 2000. Promoter hypermethylatin and BRCA1 inactivation in sporadic breast and ovarian tumors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92:564-569.

Farabollini F, S Porrini, D Della Seta, F Bianchi , F Dessi-Fulgheri. 2002. Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on sociosexual behavior of female and male rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supplement 3):409-414.

Flaws, JA, Sommers, RJ, Silbergeld, EK, Peterson, RE, and Hirshfield, AN 1997. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces genital dysmorphogenesis in the female rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 147:351-362.

 

 

Fry, M and D Toone. 1981. DDT-Induced Feminization of Gull Embryos. Science 213:922-924.


 

Fox, JE, M Starcevic, KY Kow, ME Burow and JA McLachlan. 2001. Nitrogen fixation: Endocrine disrupters and flavonoid signalling. Nature 413: 128-129.

 

Gellert, RJ, WL Heinrichs, and R Swerdloff. 1974. Effects of Neonatally-Administered DDT Homologs on Reproductive Function in Male and Female Rats. Neuroendocrinology 16: 84-94.
Gellert, RJ. 1978. Kepone, Mirex, Dieldrin, and Aldrin: Estrogenic Activity and the Induction of Persistent Vaginal Estus and Anovulation in Rats following Neonatal Treatment. Environmental Research 16: 131-138.
Gellert, RJ. 1978. Uterotrophic Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Induction of Precocious Reproductive Aging in Neonatally Treated Female Rats. Environmental Research 16: pp. 123-130.
Go, V, J Garey, MS Wolff and BGT Pogo. 1999. Estrogenic Potential of Certain Pyrethroid Compounds in the MCF-7 Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:173-177.
 

Gray LE Jr and WR Kelce. 1996. Latent effects of pesticides and toxic substances on sexual differentiation of rodents. Toxicology and Industrial Health 12:515-531.

 

Gray LE, Ostby JS, Ferrell JM, Sigmon ER, Goldman JM. 1988. Methoxychlor induces estrogen-like alterations of behavior and the reproductive tract in the female rat and hamster: effects on sex behavior, running wheel activity, and uterine morphology. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 96:525-540.
  Gray, LE, J Ostby, J Ferrell, G Rehnberg, R Linder, R Cooper, J Goldman, V Slott, and J Laskey. 1989. A Dose-Response Analysis of Methoxychlor-Induced Reproductive Development and Function in the Rat. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 12: 92-108.

 
  Gray, LE. 1991. Delayed Effects on Reproduction following Exposure to Toxic Chemicals during Critical Periods of Development. in: Aging and Environmental Toxicology, Biological and Behavioral Perspectives. RL Cooper, J Goldman, and T Harbin, eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp 183-210.

 
  Gray, LE. 1992. Chemical-induced alterations of sexual differentiation:a review of effects in humans and rodents. in: Chemically-induced alterations in sexual and functional development: The wildlife/human connection. T Colborn and C Clement, eds. Princeton Scientific Publishing, Princeton, NJ pp 203-230.

 
  Gray, LE, J Ostby, W Kelce. 1994. Developmental Effects of an Environmental Antiandrogen: The Fungicide Vinclozolin Alters Sex Differentiation of the Male Rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 129:46-52.

 
  Gray, LE and J Ostby. 1995. In utero 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Alters Reproductive Morphology and Function in Female Rat Offspring. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 133(2):285-294.

 
  Gray, LE, W Kelce, E Monosson, J Ostby, and L Birnbaum. 1995. Exposure to TCDD During Development Permanently Alters Reproductive Function in Male Long Evans Rats and Hamsters: Reduced Ejaculated Epididymal Sperm Numbers and Sex Accessory Gland Weights in Offspring with Normal Androgenic Status. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 131:108-118.

 
Gray, LE, JS Ostby, and WR Kelce. 1997. A Dose-Response Analysis of the Reproductive Effects of a Single Gestational Dose of 2,3,7,7-Tetracholordibenzo-p-dioxin in Male Long Evans Hooded Rat Offspring. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 146: 11-20.

Gray, LE, J Ostby, E Monosson and WR Kelce. 1999. Environmental antiandrogens: low doses of the fungicide vinclozolin alter sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15: 48-64. 

Gray, LE, C Wolf, C Lambright, P Mann, M Price, RL Cooper and J Ostby. 1999. Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p'-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diesthylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 15:94-118.
  Gray, LE, JS Ostby, R Cooper, and WR Kelce. 1999. The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15: 37-47.

 
Gray, LE, J Ostby, J Furr, M Price, DNR Veeramachaneni and L Parks. 2000. Perinatal Exposure to the Phthalates DEHP, BBP, and DINP, but Not DEP, DMP, or DOTP, Alters Sexual Differentiation of the Male Rat. Toxicological Sciences 58: 350-365
  Greene, R, M Burrill, A Ivy. 1939. Experimental Intersexuality: The Paradoxical Effects of Estrogens on the Sexual Development of the Female Rat. Anatomical Record 74(4): 429-438, 1939.

 
  Greene, R, M Burrill, A Ivy. 1939 Experimental Intersexuality: Modification of Sexual Development of the White Rat with Synthetic Estrogen. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 41:169-170.

 
 

Gregor, D, A Peters, C Teixeira, N Jones, and C Spencer. 1995. The Historical Residue Trend of PCBs in the Agassiz Ice Cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The Science of the Total Environment 160/161:117-126.

 
Gupta, Chhanda. 2000. Reproductive malformation of the male offspring following maternal exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 224:61-68.
RC Hale, MJ La Guardia, EP Harvey, MO Gaylor, T Matteson Mainor and WH Duff. 2001. Flame retardants: Persistent pollutants in land-applied sludges. Nature 412: 140 - 141
  Harmon, MA, MF Boehm, RA Heyman and DJ Mangelsdorf. 1995. Activation of mammalian retinoid X receptors by the insect growth regulator methoprene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92:6157-6160.

 
  Harris, SJ, HC Cecil, and J Bitman. 1978. Embryotoxic Effects of Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB) in Rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 23: 295-300.

 
  Heinrichs, WL, RJ Gellert, JL Bakke, and NL Lawrence. 1971. DDT Administered to Neonatal Rats Induces Persistent Estrus Syndrome. Science 173: 642-643.

 
  Henck, JW, JL Mattsson, DH Rezabek, CL Carlson, and RH Reich. 1994. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Polybrominated Biphenyls. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 16(4): 391-399.

 

Herman, JG and SB Baylin. 2003 Gene Silencing in Cancer in Association with Promoter Hypermethylation. New England Journal of Medicine 349:2042-2054.

 

  Hess, RA and PS Cook . 1996. Neonatal thyroid status as one determinant of adult testis size. pp 11-14 in Chapin, RE, JT Stevens, CL Hughes, WR Kelce, RA Hess and GP Daston. Symposium Overview. Endocrine modulation of reproduction. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 29: 1-17.

 
  Howdeshell, K, AK Hotchkiss, KA Thayer, JG Vandenbergh and FS vom Saal. 1999. Plastic bisphenol A speeds growth and puberty. Nature 401: 762-764.

 
  Hughes, CL. 1988. Phytochemical Mimicry of Reproductive Hormones and Modulation of Herbivore Fertility by Phytoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 78:171-175, 1988.

 
  Hughes, CL. 1996.Dietary phytoestrogens. pp 5-9 in Chapin, RE, JT Stevens, CL Hughes, WR Kelce, RA Hess and GP Daston. Symposium Overview. Endocrine modulation of reproduction. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 29: 1-17.

 

Hunt, PA, KE Koehler, M Susiarjo, CA Hodges, A Ilagan, RC Voigt, S Thomas, BF Thomas and TJ Hassold. 2003. Bisphenol A exposure causes meiotic aneuploidy in the female mouse. Current Biology 13: 546-553.

 

 

Inoue, K, K Kato, Y Yoshimura, T Makino and H Nakazawa. 2000. Determination of bisphenol A in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with multi-electrode electrochemical detection. Journal of Chromatography B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 749:17-23


 
Ishido, M, Y Masuo, M Kunimoto, S Oka and M Morita. 2004. Bisphenol A causes hyperactivity in the rat concomitantly with impairment of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 76:423-433.

Iwata, H, S Tanabe, N Sakai, and R Tatsukawa. 1993. Distribution of Persistent Organochlorines in Oceanic Air and Seawater and the Role of Ocean in their Global Transport and Fate. Environmental Science and Technology 27(6):1080-1098.

 

  Jobling, S, T Reynolds, R White, M Parker, and J Sumpter. 1995. A Variety of Environmentally Persistent Chemicals, Including Some Phthalate Plasticizers, Are Weakly Estrogenic. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(6):582-587.

 
  Jobling, S and J Sumpter. 1993. Detergent Components in Sewage Effluent are Weakly Oestrogenic to Fish: An in Vitro Study Using Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Hepatocytes. Aquatic Toxicology 27:361-372.

 

Johansson, M, S Nilsson and B-O Lund. 1998. Interactions between Methylsulfonyl PCBs and the Glucocorticoid Receptor. Environmental Health Perspectives 106:769-772.

 

  Johnson, KL, AM Cummings and LS Birbaum. 1997. Promotion of endometriosis in mice by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(7):750-755.

 

Kaltreider, RC, AM. Davis, JP Lariviere, and JW Hamilton 2001. Arsenic Alters the Function of the Glucocorticoid Receptor as a Transcription Factor. Environmental Health Perspectives 109:245-251.

 

Kandel, E.R. The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between Genes and Synapses. Science 294, 1030-1038 (2001).

 

Kawamura Y, K Nishi, T Maehara, and T Yamada. 1998. Migration of styrene dimers and trimers from polystyrene containers into instant foods. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 39:390-398.
  Kelce, W.R., C.R. Stone, S.C. Laws, L.E. Gray, J.A. Kemppainen, and E.M. Wilson 1995. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Nature 375(6532):581-585.

 

Kerkvliet NI. 2002. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of TCDD immunotoxicity. International Immunopharmacology 2:277-291.


  Klotz, D, BS Beckman, SM Hill, JA McLachlan, MR Walters and SF Arnold. 1996. Identification of Environmental Chemicals with Estrogenic Activity Using a Combination of In Vitro Assays. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(10):1084-1089.

 

Koehler, KE, RC Voigt, S Thomas, B Lamb, C Urban, T Hassold and PA Hunt. 2003. When Disaster Strikes: Rethinking Caging Materials. Lab Animal 32:24-27.

 

  Korach, K, P Sarver, K Chae, J McLachlan, J McKinney. 1987. Estrogen Receptor-Binding Activity of Polychlorinated Hydroxybiphenyls: Conformationally Restricted Structural Probes. Molecular Pharmacology 33:120-126.

 
Kramer VJ, WG Helferich, A Bergman, et al. 1997. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites are anti-estrogenic in a stably transfected human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell line. Toxicoloogy and Applied Pharmacology 144:363-375.
  Krishnan, A, P Stathis, S Permuth, L Tokes, and D Feldman. 1993 Bisphenol-A: An Estrogenic Substance is Released from Polycarbonate Flasks During Autoclaving. Endocrinology 132(8):2279-2286.

 
Kristensen, P, E Eilertsen, E Einarsdottir, A Haugen, V Skaug and S Ovrebo. 1995. Fertility in mice after prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and inorganic lead. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(6): 588-590.
Laessig, SA, MM McCarthy and EK Silbergeld. 1999. Neurotoxic effects of endocrine disruptors. Current Opinion in Neurology 12:745-751.

Laws, SC, JM Ferrell, TE Stoker, J Schmid and RL Cooper. 2000. The effects of atrazine on female Wistar rats: an evaluation of the protocol for assessing pubertal development and thyroid function. Toxicological Sciences 50:366-376

  Li, M and LG Hansen. 1996. Enzyme Induction and Acute Endocrine Effects in Prepubertal Female Rats Receiving Environmental PCB/PCDF/PCDD Mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(6):712-722.

 

Li, S, SD Hursting, BJ Davis, JA McLachlan and JC Barrett. 2003. Environmental exposure, DNA methylation, and gene regulation: lessons from diethylstilbesterol-induced cancers. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 983:161-169.

 

Liu, J, Y Xie, JM Ward, BA Diwan and MP Waalkes. 2003. Toxicogenomic analysis of aberrant gene expression in liver tumors and nontumorous livers of adult mice exposed in utero to inorganic arsenic. Toxicological Sciences 77:249-257.

Mabley, TA, DL Bjerke, RW Moore, A Gendron-Fitzpatrick and RE Peterson. 1992a. In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 3. Effects on spermatogenesis and reproductive capability. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 114:118-126.
Mabley, TA, RW Moore, RW Goy and RE Peterson. 1992b. In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 2. Effects on sexual behavior and the regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in adulthood. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 114:108-117.
Mabley, TA, RW Moore and RE Peterson. 1992c. In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 1. Effects on androgenic status. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 114:97-107.
MacLusky, NJ, TJ Brown, S Schantz, BW Seo and RE Peterson. 1998. Hormonal interactions in the effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons of the developing brain. Toxicology and Industrial Health 14:185-208.

MacLusky, NJ, T Hajszan, and C Leranth. 2005. The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol-A Inhibits Estrogen-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives, in press.

Markey, CM, EH Luque, M Muñoz de Toro, C Sonnenschein and AM Soto. 2001. In Utero Exposure to Bisphenol A Alters the Development and Tissue Organization of the Mouse Mammary Gland. Biology of Reproduction 65: 1215–1223.

 

Markowski, VP, G Zareba, S Stern, C Cox and B Weiss. 2001. Altered Operant Responding for Motor Reinforcement and the Determination of Benchmark Doses Following Perinatal Exposure to Low-Level 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Environmental Health Perspectives 109:621-627.

Masuno, H, T Kidani, K Sekiya, K Sakayama, T Shiosaka, H Yamamoto and K Honda. 2002. Bisphenol A in combination with insulin can accelerate the conversion of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. Journal of Lipid Research 3:676-684.

 

  McFadden, D. 1993. A Masculinizing Effect on the Auditory Systems of Human Females Having Male Co-Twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 90:11900-11904.

 
  McLachlan, JA and SF Arnold 1996. Environmental Estrogens. American Scientist 84: 452-461.

 
  McLachlan, JA, SF Arnold, DM Klotz, BM Collins, PM Vonier and LJ Guillette. 1997. Potency of Combined Estrogenic Pesticides. Science 275: 405-406.

 
  McLachlan, J, R Newbold, and B Bullock. 1975. Reproductive Tract Lesions in Male Mice Exposed Prenatally to Diethylstilbestrol. Science 190:991-992.

 
  McLachlan, J, R Newbold, C Teng, K Korach. 1992. Environmental Estrogens: Orphan Receptors and Genetic Imprinting. pp 107-112 in Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., NJ, U.S.

 
Monosson, E, WR Kelce, C Lambright, J Ostby and LE Gray. 1999. Peripubertal exposure to the antiandrogenic fungicide, vinclozolin, delays puberty, inhibits the development of androgen-dependent tissues, and alters androgen receptor function in the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15:65-79.
  Montague, P. 1996. Dangers of Chemical Combinations. Rachel's Environment & Health Weekly, #498.

 

Morris, JA, CL Jordan and SM Breedlove. 2004. Sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system. Nature Neuroscience 7:1034-1039.

 

  Muir, D, R Norstrom, and M Simon. 1988. Organochlorine Contaminants in Arctic Marine Food Chains: Accumulation of Specific Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlordane-Related Compounds. Environmental Science and Technology 22(9):1071-1089.

 
  Murk, AJ, JHJ vanden Berg, JH Koeman, A Brouwer. 1991. The Toxicity of Tetrachlorobenzyltoluenes (Ugilec 141) and Polychlorobiphenyls (Aroclor 1254 and PCB-77) Compared in Ah-Responsive and Ah-Nonresponsive Mice. Environmental Pollution, 72:57-68

 
 

Mylchreest, E, S Madhabananda, CC Russell, and PMD Foster. 1999. Disruption of Androgen-Regulated Male Reproductive Development by Di(n-Butyl) Phthalate during Late Gestation in Rats Is Different from Flutamide. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 156: 81-95.

Mylchreest, E, DG Wallace, RC Cattley, and PMD Foster. 2000. Dose-dependent alterations in androgen-regulated male reproductive developments in rats exposed to di(n-butyl)phthalate during late gestation. Toxicological Sciences 55: 143-151.

 

Nadal A, AB Ropero, E Fuentes, B Soria, and C Ripoll. 2004. Estrogen and xenoestrogen actions on endocrine pancreas: from ion channel modulation to activation of nuclear function. Steroids 69:531-536.

 

  Nagel, SC, FS vom Saal, KA Thayer, MG Dhar, M Boechler and WV Welshons. 1997. Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo activity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(1):70-76.

 
Nef, S, and LF Parada. 1999. Cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Insl3. Nature Genetics 22:295-299.
Nef, S, T Shipman and LF Parada. 2000. A molecular basis for estrogen-induced cryptorchidism. Developmental Biology 224:354-361.

Negishi T, K Kawasaki, S Suzaki, H Maeda, Y Ishii, S Kyuwa, Y Kuroda and Y Yoshikawa. 2004. Behavioral alterations in response to fear-provoking stimuli and tranylcypromine induced by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A and nonylphenol in male rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. 112:1159-1164.

 

  Ness, D, S Schantz, J Moshtaghian, L Hansen. 1993. Effects of Perinatal Exposure to Specific PCB Congeners on Thyroid Hormone Concentrations and Thyroid Histology in the Rat. Toxicology Letters 68:311-323.

 
Newbold, RR, EP Banks, B Bullock, and WN Jefferson 2001. Uterine adenocarcinoma in mice treated neonatally with genistein. Cancer Research 61: 4325-4328.

Nicoletto MO, Donach M, De Nicolo A, Artioli G, Banna G, Monfardini S. 2001. BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutations as prognostic factors in clinical practice and genetic counselling. Cancer Treat Rev 27:295-304.

 

Nohara K, H Fujimaki, S Tsukumo, K Inouye, H Sone, and C Tohyama. 2002. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on T cell-derived cytokine production in ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized C57Bl/6 mice. Toxicology 172:49–58.

 

  Oehme, M. 1991. Further Evidence for Long-range Air Transport of Polychlorinated Aromates and Pesticides: North American and Eurasia to the Arctic. AMBIO 20(7):293-297.

 

Ohyama, K, F Nagai and Y Tsuchiya 2001. Certain Styrene Oligomers Have Proliferative Activity on MCF-7 Human Breast Tumor Cells and Binding Affinity for Human Estrogen Receptor. Environmental Health Perspectives 109:699-703.

Oie L, LG Hersoug and JO Madsen. 1997. Residential exposure to plasticizers and its possible role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 105:972-978.

Palanza P, KL Howdeshell, S Parmigiani and FS vom Saal. 2002. Exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A during fetal life or in adulthood alters maternal behavior in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:415-422.

 

Payne, J, N Rajapakse, M Wilkins, and A Kortenkamp 2000. Prediction and Assessment of the Effects of Mixtures of Four Xenoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 108:983-987.
  Peterson, R, R Moore, T Mably, D Bjerke, R Goy. 1992. Male Reproductive System Ontogeny: Effects of Perinatal Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloroodibenzo-p-dioxin. pp 175-194 in Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. eds T Colborn and C Clement, Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., NJ, U.S.

 

Pliakas, AM, RR Carlson, RL Neve, C Konradi, EJ Nestler and WA Carlezon. 2001. Altered Responsiveness to Cocaine and Increased Immobility in the Forced Swim Test Associated with Elevated cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Expression in Nucleus Accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience 21: 7397-7403.

  Porter, W, RD Hinsdall, A Fairbrother, LJ Olson, J Jaeger, T Yuill, S Bisgaard, WG Hunter and K Nolan. 1984. Toxicant-disease-environment interactions associated with suppression of immune system, growth and reproduction. Science 224:1014-1017.

 
  Porter, W, S Green, N Debbink and I Carlson. 1993. Groundwater Pesticides: Interactive Effects of Low Concentrations of Carbamates, Aldicarb and Methomyl, and the Triazine Metribuzin on Thyroxine and Somatotropin Levels in White Rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 40: 15-34.

 
  Porter, WP, JW Jaeger and IH Carlson. 1999. Endocrine, immune and behavioral effects of aldicarb (carbamate), atrazine (triazine) and nitrate (fertilizer) mixtures at groundwater concentrations. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15: 133-150.

 
  Purdom, C, P Hardiman, V Bye, N Eno, C Tyler, and J Sumpter. 1994. Estrogenic Effects of Effluents From Sewage Treatment Works. Chemistry and Ecology 8:275-285.

 
Rajapakse, N, D Ong and A Kortenkamp. 2001. Defining the Impact of Weakly Estrogenic Chemicals on the Action of Steroidal Estrogens. Toxicological Sciences 60: 296-304.

Rajapakse, N, E Silva and AKortenkamp. 2002. Combining Xenoestrogens at Levels below Individual No-Observed-Effect Concentrations Dramatically Enhances Steroid Hormone Action. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:917–921.

 

Ramamoorthy, K, F Wang, I Chen, S Safe, JD Norris, DP McDonnell, KW Gaido, WP Bocchinfuso and KS Korach. 1997. Potency of Combined Estrogenic Pesticides. Science 275: 405.

Ramos, JG, J Varayoud, C Sonnenschein, AM Soto, M Muñoz de Toro and EH Luque. 2001. Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Alters the Periductal Stroma and Glandular Cell Function in the Rat Ventral Prostate. Biology of Reproduction 65: 1271–1277.

Ramos JG, J Varayoud, L Kass, H Rodriguez, L Costabel, M Munoz-De-Toro, EH Luque. 2003. Bisphenol a induces both transient and permanent histofunctional alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in prenatally exposed male rats. Endocrinology 144:3206-3215.

 

Raven, PH and GB Johnson 1991. Understanding Biology. 2nd Edition. Mosby. St. Louis.

 

Rice, DC. 1997. Effects of postnatal exposure to a PCB mixture in monkeys on multiple fixed interval-fixed ratio performance. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 19:1-6.

 

Rice, DC. 1998. Effects of postnatal exposure of monkeys to a PCB mixture on spatial discrimination reversal and DRL performance. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 20(4):391-400.

 

 

Rice, DC and S Hayward 1997. Effects of postnatal exposure of monkeys to a PCB mixture on concurrent random interval-random interaval and progressive ratio performance. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 21:47-58.


 
 

Riddle, J. 1994. Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World of Renaissance. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, U.S.

 

 
   
Rier, S, D Martin, R Bowman, W Dmowski, J Becker 1993. Endometriosis in rhesus monkeys following chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 21:433-441.

Rier, SE, DC Martin, RE Bowman, and JL Becker. 1995. Immunoresponsiveness in endometriosis: Implications of estrogenic toxicants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Supplement 7):151-156.

 

Rier, SE, WE Turner, DC Martin, R Morris, GW Lucier and GC Clark. 2001. Serum levels of TCDD and dioxin-like chemicals in rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to dioxin: correlation of increased serum PCB levels with endometriosis. Toxicological Sciences 59:147-159

Rippen, G. 1999. Handbuch Umweltchemikalien. Stoffdaten, Prüfuerfahren, Vorschriften, 3rd ed. 49th supplement issue. Landsberg, Ecomed.

 

Rivero-Rodriguez, L, VH Borja-Aburto, C Santos-Burgoa, S Waliszewskiy, C Rios and V Cruz 1997. Exposure Assessment for Workers Applying DDT to Control Malaria in Veracruz, Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives 105:98-101.

 

Reusch, JEB, LA Colton and DJ Klemm. 2000. CREB Activation Induces Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology 20:1008-1020.

 

Routledge, EJ and JP Sumpter. 1996. Estrogenic activity of surfactants and some of their degradation products assessed using a recombinant yeast screen. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15, 241-248
Rubin, BS, MK Murray, DA Damassa, JC King and AM Soto. 2001. Perinatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Affects Body Weight, Patterns of Estrous Cyclicity, and Plasma LH Levels. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 675-680.

Saeki, K, A You, E Suzuki, Y Yazaki and F Takaku. 1999. Aberrant expression of cAMP-response-element-binding protein ('CREB') induces apoptosis. Biochemical Journal 323:249-255.

 

  Safe, S. 1986. Comparative Toxicology and Mechanism of Action of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 26:371-399.

 
  Safe, S. 1990. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Related Compounds: Environmental and Mechanistic Considerations which Support the Development of Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs). Critical Reviews in Toxicology 21(1):51-88.

 
  Sager, D, D Girard, and D Nelson. 1991. Early Postnatal Exposure to PCBs: Sperm Function in Rats. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10:737-746.

 
 

Sager, DB and DM Girard. 1994. Long-Term Effects on Reproductive Parameters in Female Rats after Translactational Exposure to PCBs. Environmental Research 66: 52-76.

 

 
Sakamoto H, A Matsuzawa, R Itoh and Y Tohyama. 2000. Quantitative analysis of styrene dimer and trimersmigrated from disposable lunch boxes. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 41:200-205.

Sakaue, M, S Ohsako, R Ishimura, S Kurosawa, M Kurohmaru, Y Hayashi, Y Aoki, J Yonemoto and C Tohyama. 2001. Bisphenol-A Affects Spermatogenesis in the Adult Rat Even at a Low Dose. Journal of Occupational Health 43:185 -190.

 

Sanderson, JT, W Seinen, JP Giesy and M van den Berg 2000. 2-Chloro-s-Triazine Herbicides Induce Aromatase (CYP19) Activity in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells: A Novel Mechanism for Estrogenicity? Toxicological Sciences 54, 121-127.
Schantz S and RE Bowman. 1989. Learning in monkeys exposed perinatally to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Neurotoxicol Teratol 11:13-19 (1989).

Schönfelder, G, W Wittfoht, H Hopp, CE Talsness, M Paul and I Chahoud. 2002. Parent Bisphenol A Accumulation in the Human Maternal-Fetal-Placental Unit. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:A703-A707.

 

  Setchell, K. 1985. Naturally Occurring Non-Steroidal Estrogens of Dietary Origin in Estrogens in the Environment II: Influences on Development. ed J McLachlan Elsevier, New York.

 

Sharpe, RM. 2001. Hormones and testis development and the possible adverse effects of environmental chemicals. Toxicology Letters 120:221-232.

  Sharpe, RM, JS Fisher, MM Millar, S Jobling and JP Sumpter. 1995. Gestational and lactational exposure of rats to xenoestrogens results in reduced testicular size and sperm production. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(12):1136-1143.

 
Sheehan, DM, E Willingham, D Gaylor, JM Bergeron and D Crews. 1999. No threshold dose for estradiol-induced sex reversal of turtle embryos: how little is too much? Environmental Health Perspectives 107:155-159.
 

Sierra, V, and L Uphouse. 1986. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Exposure to Chlordecone. NeuroToxicology 7(2): 609-622.


 
  Simonich, SL and RA Hites. 1995. Global distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds. Science 269:1851-1854.

 
  Soto, A and C Sonnenschein. 1984. Mechanism of Estrogen Action on Cellular Proliferation: Evidence for Indirect and Negative Control on Cloned Breast Tumor Cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 122:1097-1103

 
  Soto, A. and C Sonnenschein. 1987. Cell Proliferation of Estrogen-Sensitive Cells: The Case for Negative Control. Endocrine Reviews 8:44-52.

 
  Soto, A. and C Sonnenschein. 1985. The Role of Estrogens on the Proliferation of Human Breast Tumor Cells (MCF-7). Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 23:87-94.

 
  Soto, A.M, H. Justicia, J.W. Wray, and C. Sonnenschein. 1991. p-Nonylphenol: an estrogenic xenobiotic released from modified polystyrene. Environmental Health Perspectives 92:167-173.

 
  Soto, A.M., K.L. Chung, and C. Sonnenschein. 1994. The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 102:380-383.

 
  Soto, A, T Lin, H Justica, R Silvia, and C Sonnenschein. 1992. An 'In Culture' Bioassay to Assess the Estrogenicity of Xenobiotics (E-SCREEN). pp 295-309 in Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. T Colborn and C Clement (eds), Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., NJ, U.S.

 
  Sumpter, J, and S Jobling. 1995. Vitellogenesis as a Biomarker for Oestrogen Contamination of the Aquatic Environment. in The Proceedings of the Estrogens in Environment Conference, Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements.

 

Sulentic CE, MP Holsapple and NE Kaminski. 2000. Putative link between transcriptional regulation of IgM expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/dioxin-responsive enhancer signaling pathway. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 295:705-716.

 

Spearow, JL, P Doemeny, R Sera, Rl Leffler and M Barkley. 1999. Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Endocrine Disruption by Estrogen in Mice. Science 285: 1259-1261.

Suzuki, T, K Mizuo, H Nakazawa, Y Funae, S Fushiki, S Fukushima, T Shirai, and M Narita. 2003. Prenatal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol-A enhances the central dopamine D1 receptor mediated action in mice: enhancement of the methamphetamine-induced abuse state. Neuroscience 117:639-644.

 

  Swackhamer, D, and R. Hites. 1988. Occurrence and bioaccumulation of Organochlorine Compounds in Fishes from Siskiwit Lake, Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Environmental Science and Technology. 22(5)543-548.

 
Takahashi, O and S Oishi. 2000. Disposition of Orally Administered 2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (Bisphenol A) in Pregnant Rats and the Placental Transfer to Fetuses. Environmental Health Perspectives 108:931-935.
  Toppari, J., J. Larsen, P. Christiansen, A. Giwercman, P Grandjean, L.J. Guillette Jr., B. Jegou, T.K. Jensen, P. Jouannet, N. Keiding, H. Leffers, J.A. McLachlan, O. Meyer, J. Muller, E. Rajpert-De Meyts, Thomas Scheike, R. Sharpe, J. Sumpter, and N.E. Skakkebaek. 1996. Male Reproductive Health and Environmental Xenoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(Suppl 4):741-803.

 
Ulrich, EM, A Caperell-Grant, S-H Jung, RA Hites, and RM Bigsby. 2000. Environmentally Relevant Xenoestrogen Tissue Concentrations Correlated to Biological Responses in Mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 108:973-977.
  U.S.Food and Drug Administration. 1990. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program Residues in Foods--1989. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry 73:127A-146A, 1990.

 

Volarcik, K, L Sheean, J Goldfarb, L Woods, FW Abdul-Karim and P Hunt. 1998. The meiotic competence of in-vitro matured human oocytes is influenced by donor age: evidence that folliculogenesis is compromised in the reproductively aged ovary. Human Reproduction 13:154-160.

 

  van Birgelen, APJM, KM Fase, J van der Kolk, H Poiger, A Brouwer, W Seinen, and M van den Berg. 1996. Synergistic Effect of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin on Hepatic Porphyrin Levels in the Rat. Environmental Health Perspectives 104:550-557.

 
  vom Saal, F, and F Bronson. 1980. Sexual Characteristics of Adult Female Mice are Correlated with Their Blood Testosterone Levels During Prenatal Development. Science 208:597-599.

 
  vom Saal, F. 1984. The Intrauterine Position Phenomenon: Effects of Physiology, Aggressive Behavior, and Population Dynamics in House Mice. Progress in Clinical Biology Research 169, Biological Perspectives in Aggression eds K Flannelly, R Blanchard, D Blanchard, Liss Publishers, New York 135-179.

 
  vom Saal, F. 1989. Sexual Differentiation in Litter Bearing Mammals: Influence of Sex of Adjacent Fetuses in Utero. Journal of Animal Science 67:1824-1840.

 
  vom Saal, F, M Montano, M Wang. 1992. Sexual Differentiation in Mammals. pp 17-83 in Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. eds T Colborn and C Clement, Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., NJ.

 
  vom Saal, F, S Nagel, P Palanza, M Boechler, S Parmigiani and W Welshons. 1995. Estrogenic Pesticides: Binding Relative to Estradiol in MCF-7 Cells and Effects of Exposure During Fetal Life on Subsequent Territorial Behavior in Male Mice. Toxicology Letters, 77:343-350, 1995.

 
  vom Saal, F, D Quadagno, M Even, L Keisler, D Keisler,and S Khan. 1990. Paradoxical Effects of Maternal Stress on Fetal Steroids and Postnatal Reproductive Traits in Female Mice from Different Intrauterine Positions. Biology of Reproduction 43:751-761.

 
  vom Saal, F, BG Timms, MM Montano, P Palanza, KA Thayer, SC Nagel, MD Dhar, VK Ganjam, S Parmigiani and WV Welshons. 1997. Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94:2056-61.

 
  Vonier, PM, DA Crain, JA McLachlan, LJ Guillette, Jr, and SF Arnold. 1996. Interaction of Environmental Chemicals with the Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors from the Oviduct of the American Alligator. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(12): 1318-1323.

 

Vorderstrasse BA, LB Steppan, AE Silverstone, and NI Kerkvliet. 2001. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-deficient mice generate normal immune responses to model antigens and are resistant to TCDD-induced immune suppression. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 171:157-164.

 

 

Wania, F, and D Mackay. 1993. Global Fractionation and Cold Condensation of Low Volatility Organochlorine Compounds in Polar Regions. AMBIO 22(1):10-18

 

 
  Welshons, WV, SC Nagel, KA Thayer, BM Judy, and FS vom Saal. 1999. Low-dose bioactivity of xenoestrogens in animals: fetal exposure to low doses of methoxychlor and other xenoestrogens increases adult prostate size in mice. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15:12-25.

 

Welshons, WV, KA Thayer, BM Judy, JA Taylor, EM Curran and FS vom Saal. 2003. Large effects from small exposures. I. Mechanisms for endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity. Environmental Health Perspectives doi:10.1289/ehp.5494

 

Wetherill, YB, CE Petre, KR Monk, A Puga, and KE Knudsen. 2002. The Xenoestrogen Bisphenol A Induces Inappropriate Androgen Receptor Activation and Mitogenesis in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 1: 515–524.

 

  White RS, Jobling, SA Hoare, JP Sumpter, and MG Parker. 1994. Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic. Endocrinology 185:175-182.

 
  Whitten, P. 1992. Effects of a Phytoestrogen Diet on Estrogen-Dependent Reproductive Processes in Immature Female Rats. Steroids 57: 56-61.

 
  Whitten, P, E Russell, F Naftolin. 1992. Effects of a Normal, Human-Concentration Phytoestrogen Diet on Rat Uterine Growth. Steroids 57:98-105.

 
 

Whitten, P, C Lewis, F Naftolin. 1993. A Phytoestrogen Diet Induces the Premature Anovulatory Syndrome in Lactationally Exposed Female Rats. Biology of Reproduction 49:1117-1121.

 

Wilkening, KE, LA Barrie and M Engle. 2000. Trans-Pacific Air Pollution. Science 290: 65-67.

 

Yellayi, S, A Naaz, MA Szewczykowski, T Sato, JA Woods, J Chang, M Segre, CD Allred, WG Helferich and PS Cooke. 2002. The phytoestrogen genistein induces thymic and immune changes: A human health concern? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:7616-7621.

Yoshino S, K Yamaki, R Yanagisawa, H Takano, H Hayashi, and Y Mori. 2003. Effects of bisphenol A on antigen-specific antibody production, proliferative responses of lymphoid cells, and TH1 and TH2 immune responses in mice. Br. J. Pharmacol. 138:1271-1276.

Yoshino S, K Yamaki, X Li, T Sai, R Yanagisawa, H Takano, S Taneda, H Hayashi, and Y Mori. 2004. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A up-regulates immune responses, including T helper 1 and T helper 2 responses, in mice. Immunol. 112:489-495.

 

Zhou T, DG Ross, MJ DeVito, and KM Crofton. 2001. Effects of short-term in vivo exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on thyroid hormones and hepatic enzyme activities in weanling rats. Toxicological Sciences 61:76-82.

 

 
Zhou T, MM Taylor, MJ DeVito, and KM Crofton. 2002. Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers results in thyroid hormone disruption. Toxicolological Sciences 66:105- 116.
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OSF Home
 About this website
Newest
Book Basics
  Synopsis & excerpts
  The bottom line
  Key points
  The big challenge
  Chemicals implicated
  The controversy
  Recommendations
New Science
  Broad trends
  Basic mechanisms
  Brain & behavior
  Disease resistance
  Human impacts
  Low dose effects
  Mixtures and synergy
  Ubiquity of exposure
  Natural vs. synthetic
  New exposures
  Reproduction
  Wildlife impacts
Recent Important    Results
Consensus
News/Opinion
Myths vs. Reality
Useful Links
Important Events
Important Books
Other Sources
Other Languages
About the Authors
 

Talk to us: email