Signs of potential risks go back 50 years
1951 -- DuPont begins using ammonium perfluorooctanoate, also called
C8, to make Teflon and related polymers at its Washington Works
plant near Parkersburg, W.Va. The chemical is produced by Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing, or 3M.
1954 -- DuPont employees express concerns about the toxicity of
1961 -- DuPont confirms that C8 is toxic in animals and causes observable
changes in organ functions.
1978 -- 3M reports that C8 is detected in the blood of its workers.
DuPont is ''disturbed'' that C8 might be causing ''toxic effects''
among employees at the Washington Works plant. The information is
not shared outside the company.
1980 -- Additional study by 3M confirms that C8 is toxic to rats
and monkeys. DuPont determines that ''people accumulate C8'' and
''continued exposure is not tolerable.'' The company begins sampling
workers' blood for C8.
1982 -- DuPont's director of employee relations recommends that
all ''available practical steps be taken to reduce this (C8) exposure
because,'' among other things, ''all employees, not just Teflon
area workers are exposed'' and ''there is obviously great potential
for the current or future exposure of members of the local community
from emissions leaving the plant perimeter.''
1984 -- DuPont sends employees to obtain drinking water samples
from taps near Washington Works. C8 levels in the water are as high
as 1.5 parts per billion in Lubeck, W.Va., and 0.8 parts per billion
in Little Hocking, Ohio, where drinking water is drawn from wells
across the Ohio River from the plant.
1988 -- DuPont buys the Lubeck well field next to Washington Works
for $2 million and helps drill new wells 2 miles downriver.
1991 -- DuPont establishes a ''community exposure guideline'' of
1 part per billion for C8 in drinking water. The company continued
to cite the guideline in internal documents as recently as November
May 2000 -- Pressed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
3M announces it is ''voluntarily'' phasing out production of perfluorooctanyl
sulfonate (the active ingredient in Scotchgard) and related chemicals,
October 2000 -- DuPont reaches an out-of-court settlement with a
West Virginia farmer who filed a lawsuit claiming that C8 killed
his cattle and sickened his family.
August 2001 -- Attorneys file a class-action lawsuit on behalf of
West Virginia residents exposed to C8.
November 2001 -- West Virginia and DuPont sign a consent order requiring
another study of the potential health hazards posed by C8.
January 2002 -- Officials from the Little Hocking Water Association
find out for the first time that their water supply is contaminated
West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection concludes that
C8 in drinking water presents ''possible health risks to the public''
and that C8 ''has been linked to possible health problems related
to long-term exposure.''
February 2002 -- Tests of Little Hocking's wells detect levels of
C8 that are nearly eight times higher than DuPont's community standard.
a draft hazard assessment, the U.S. EPA concludes that cancerous
tumors induced in rats exposed to C8 ''are relevant to humans.''
March 2002 -- C8 is detected in the Tuppers Plains, Ohio, water
system -- 15 miles downriver from Washington Works. Low levels of
the chemical also are found in Pomeroy, Ohio, 70 miles downriver,
and in the Belpre, Ohio, water system, 4 miles upriver from the
plant. Experts conclude that smokestack emissions from Washington
Works are causing some of the contamination.
an agreement with the U.S. EPA, DuPont promises to reduce air and
water emissions of C8 by at least 50 percent of 1999 levels by the
end of 2003. The company also plans to install a system to remove
up to 95 percent of the C8 in the plant's wastewater.
May 2002 -- A team of West Virginia, federal and private scientists
convened by the state of West Virginia declares that water containing
up to 150 parts per billion of C8 isn't harmful to humans.
September 2002 -- The U.S. EPA begins a rare ''priority review''
of data that links C8 to health problems, the first step in a potential
effort to regulate the chemical. The agency cites studies showing
that ''exposure to (C8) can result in a variety of effects including
developmental/reproductive toxicity, liver toxicity and cancer.''
Virginia regulators approve an air-exposure level for C8 that is
three times weaker than the limit proposed by an agency consultant,
who says the lower level ''is more protective of public health.''
December 2002 -- In an internal memo, a top official at the Ohio
Environmental Protection Agency endorses West Virginia's C8 ''screening
level'' of 150 ppb in drinking water. ''As a result, no adverse
health effects would be expected to occur in populations using the
contaminated water as a source of drinking water,'' the Ohio EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ohio Environmental Protection
Agency, West Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, court